Insuffiient obuhaemost to reading (reading disability)
about. h. Is a ondition, at to-rum the level of reading appears essentially lower in omparison with expeted for the given age and intelligene, and tzh inommensurable with ultural, lingv. And eduational experiene uh-sja . In this definition does not ontain instrutions on onrete harater of the reasons ausing it.
Alex means full inability to read under it usually mean loss of ability to reading in -those damages or diseases of a brain. Disleksija means partial (but, as a rule, essential) infringement of ability to reading. nek- authors widely use disleksiju as a synonym about. h. dr. Mean under it the ertain form of dysfuntion TSNS.
the Term insuffiient obuhaemost simultaneously and more widely, and already in omparison with the term about. h. . Its more apaious value is defined by that insuffiient obuhaemost an, besides reading, onern to oral speeh ekspressii, to understanding of speeh on hearing, written speeh ekspressii or to arithmeti alulations and a mathematial reasoning. Its narrower value is defined by that it demands an essential divergene between a real and potential level of ahievements and assumes konstitutsionalnuju, a neurologi basis. Besides it exludes the ases whih are being mainly those of visual, aoustial or motor infringements, delays of intelletual development, emotional frustration or sots., ultural, language or eonomi adverse onditions. The federal norms adjusting klassif. Children as suffering insuffiient obuhaemostju, have been published in the Federal register (Federal Register) on Deember, th, .
A Number professional org-, expressed a dissatisfation with this federal definition, have offered following definition: Insuffiient speifi obuhaemost - the patrimonial term overing non-uniform on the struture a ategory of infringements, shown in signifiant diffiulties in purhase and use of aoustial, speeh, written, logi or mathematial skills. These infringements are internally inherent in the individual and presumably are onsequene of dysfuntion TSNS. Though insuffiient obuhaemosti an aompany dr. Interfering onditions or influenes of an environment, it is not that of these onditions or influenes .
About third of population of shoolboys finds out skills of reading above an average level, one more third the average level and the remained third - shows skills of reading below the average level. Shoolboys making last third are distributed on following ategories: - % uh-sja are haraterized insuffiient obuhaemostju - more % - delays of intelletual development nearby % gets in dr. The ategories providing neessity of speial training approximately from up to % have about. h. and about % are haraterized by low abilities to training (with IQ from up to ), not allowing to support eduational ativity within the limits of an average level, but thus not appearing low enough for referene suh uh-sja to a ategory demanding speial training.
distintions in used riteria and surveyed populations interfere with reeption full and exat an inform. About a degree of prevalene about. h.. stimations in the various ountries vary from % (in Japan) up to more than % (in Austria). Aording to the most widespread estimations, in the USA from up to % of hildren of shool age are haraterized about. h. (inluding hildren with insuffiient obuhaemostju).