Ffiieny of leadership (leadership effetiveness)
Under leadership is understood ability to ondut behind itself to supervise or operate group/organization. The leader an be spontaneous (emergent), t. e. Informally reognized either hosen by group, or formal, appointed org-, to to-dig the given group belongs.
for the short history empirial studying of a problem of leadership has passed a way from naive searh universal magi liderskoj features or the best strategy of behaviour onerning members of group to more omplex representation that various situations demand various types liderskogo behaviour or liderskih qualities.
having stopped to be engaged in searhes liderskih features, researhers have swithed the attention to studying of those forms of behaviour and styles of management, to- would allow to distinguish effetive leaders from less effetive. Original and widely known issled. Levin, Lippitta and Uajta the first studying leadership has transferred to walls of laboratory to investigate influene of various forms of behaviour of leaders on their attitudes with members of group and attration of supporters. They have found out, that demorati, ooperating style of leadership involved in itself more supporters and satisfied members of group in a greater degree than avtokratihesky or liberal styles of leadership.
dominating theories and onneted with them issled. During -- years were haraterized by three distintive features: these theories were based on belief, that the best method of leadership jav-sja the approah aligned-on-worker or foused on attitudes they onentrated the researh efforts to suh interpersonal variables as liderskie attitjudy, the behaviour and motivation, they alloated a supporting role suh kognitivnym to variables as lidersky intelligene, effiieny in the deision of industrial problems and working knowledge. This last t. zr., that kognitivnye variables do not play an essential role, was not divided by experts, to- should predit the future effiieny of managers or arry out reommendations on promotion and arrangement of heads.
during this period researhers have started regular studying forms of behaviour, to- assoiated with effetive leadership. Suh studying has led to detetion of two important behavioural fators . One fator whih has reeived the name attention, inluded sotsioemotsionalnye, ekspressivnye the forms of behaviour onneted with display of interest and areful partiipation to opinions, feelings and well-being of subordinates. Dr. The fator, struturization (struturing), inluded ast and problems among members of group, installation of standards, an estimation of exeution and fousing on industrial problems.