Comparative psyhology (omparative psyhology)
the Subjet item jav-sja behaviour of animals. Issled. In item both overall objetives an pursue or one of two, or. The first onsists in opening priniples and onstrution of the theories, allowing to operate behaviour of animals. These priniples and theories an be speifi to one or several lose related kinds of animals, or possess greater universality and extend even on people. The seond onsists in understanding of, whether brings the behaviour of an animal observable in laboratory or natural onditions, the ontribution to maintenane of the general evolutionary fitness, and if yes how inrease of fitness is reahed.
the literature and natural sienes till XIX entury Periodially replenished with modern histories, hearings and reasonings on behaviour of animals, but down to the end of XIX entury nobody tried regularly and to investigate their behaviour sientifially. Probably, in the ertain degree it resulted from the assumption of an insuperable preipie between behaviour hel. And the animals, XVII entury stated by the philosopher Ren Desartes, to- onsidered, that behaviour hel. Goes proesses of thinking and a reasoning whereas animal are the reations movable only by mehanial reflexes and instints.
this strit division of behaviour hel. And animals it has been alled into question by the theory of the evolution whih has begun sovr. the item Charles Darvin and Alfred Russell Wallae have independently opened substantive provisions of this theory for the first time reported at session Linneevskogo of a soiety in The theory approved, that all populations existing in the nature onstantly and gradually hange as a result of natural seletion of the individuals differing on a degree of the fitness. This proess has led to an extreme variety of the animal and vegetative forms, one of lines evoljutsionirovala in gominid and, eventually, in hel. From evolutionary development two important onlusions follow: ) elements helov. Mentalities an be found out in animals ) elements of mentality of animals an be found at hel. C.Darvin well understood these onsequenes, has addressed to first of them in the work the Origin of the person (The desent of man), and to the seond - in the book xpression of emotions at people and animals (The expression of emotions in man and animals). However in C.Darvins working diaries formulates more thin onlusion: if it was possible to reate sientifi psyhology helov. Reason, it would be the proof of that reason and behaviour hel. Submit to the same natural laws, as behaviour of animals. In a basis of suh formulation the assumption that if the behaviour of an animal is similar with atually helov laid. Behaviour under ertain onrete irumstanes it is neessary to investigate only our own psihih. The phenomena to ome nearer to understanding of thinking of the given animal.
extravagant and olourful interpretations of behaviour of animals have generated an inevitable wave of objetions. K.Lloyd Morgan approved, that at reation of theories and generalizations it is neessary to lean only on diretly observable behaviour. Aording to K.L.Morgans preepts, to behaviour of animals it is neessary to apply most simple of possible explanations, soglasujushhihsja with supervision. From K.L.Morgans item up to biheviorizma John B.Watson have been made very small step, to- has destroyed all referenes on not observable psihih. The phenomena and proesses at animals. The exat version K.L.Morgans item and biheviorizm Dzh.. Watson were the answer to exessively zealous attributing of mental abilities hel. An animal. As the brightest illustration to the given problem Clever Hanss history an serve.